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A 32-year-old man is evaluated in the emergency department for a 5-day history of worsening crampy abdominal pain and eight to ten loose bowel movements a day. The patient has a 5-year history of ulcerative colitis treated with azathioprine and topical mesalamine; before this episode, he had one or two bowel movements of well-formed stool a day. The patient had sinusitis recently, which resolved with antibiotic therapy. He has otherwise been healthy and has not traveled recently, had contact with sick persons, or been noncompliant with medication.
On physical examination, the temperature is 38.3 °C (101 °F), the blood pressure is 130/76 mm Hg sitting and 105/60 mm Hg standing, the pulse rate is 90/min sitting and 120/min standing, and the respiration rate is 18/min. The abdomen is diffusely tender without rebound or guarding. Laboratory studies reveal hemoglobin 12.3 g/dL (123 g/L), leukocyte count of 28,000/µL (28 × 109/L) with 15% band forms, and platelet count of 234,000/µL (234 × 109/L). Intravenous fluids are started and stool studies are obtained.
Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in the management of this patient?
A) Increase dosage of azathioprine
B) Start oral vancomycin
C) Start oral mesalamine
D) Small-bowel radiographic series
Answer and Critique
This patient likely has Clostridium difficile antibiotic-associated colitis complicating his underlying inflammatory bowel disease. C. difficile is an anaerobic gram-positive rod that produces two toxins, both capable of damaging the mucosa of the colon and causing pseudomembranous colitis. Infectious diarrhea associated with C. difficile has emerged as a major public health concern and can be seen in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Whenever a patient with inflammatory bowel disease presents with a new flare, stool studies, including C. difficile toxin assay, should be done. This patient’s recent history of antibiotic use greatly increases his risk of C. difficile infection. The fever, orthostasis, leukocytosis, and abdominal tenderness in the setting of chronic immunosuppression are all signs that he needs to be hospitalized for further investigations (for example, CT scan to rule out toxic megacolon) and to start empiric therapy. Optimal therapy is orally administered metronidazole or vancomycin and should be initiated promptly for severely ill patients.
It would be unwise to increase his immunosuppression either by adding prednisone or increasing the azathioprine in the setting of possible infection. There is no role for evaluation of the small-bowel mucosa with a small-bowel series in order to diagnose small-bowel inflammation.
- Infectious causes should be considered in exacerbations of diarrhea in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
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